This site has been archived for historical purposes. These pages are no longer being updated.
Maximilian Hell, S.J.
(1720 - 1792)
and his Mesmerizing adventures
Stamp of Maximilian Hell commemorating his
expedition to Lapland for the transit of Venus
Maximilian Hell, S.J.Maximilian Hell, S.J. died 200 years ago in 1792, after falling victim to the defamation of Jesuits during the Suppression of the Society. Accused of altering his data during the 1769 transit of Venus, he was not exonerateed until a century later when the renowned American astronomer Simon Newcomb found Hell's readings to be correct, his scholarship above suspicion and his accusers guilty of slander. The damage done his reputation, however, survived him because of historians who failed to report his rehabilitation.
Because of his personal qualities as well as his scientific adventures Hell was held in high esteem by all who knew him. He was elected to the most prestigious scientific academies of Europe. The rulers of both England and Denmark offered him large honorary pensions which he modestly declined. At the urging of fellow scientists he attempted to form an imperial academy of science, but was thwarted by political enemies of the Jesuits. He did succeed in publishing a very timely and indispensable journal concerning the latest scientific discoveries. A lunar crater is named after Hell and a 1970 Czechoslovakian stamp honors him dressed as a Laplander recalling his famous scientific expedition.
Maximilian Hell was born into a family of engineers in 1720 in the city of Selmecz (Schemnitz), Hungary. His father was the chief engineer of the local mines and his brother invented an ingenious machine to pump water out of the mine shafts. After joining the Jesuits Maximilian taught mathematics, astronomy, physics and technology and attracted large numbers to his celebrated lectures. He also was a prodigious writer having no less than 35 entries in Sommervogel's Bibliography and requiring 20 pages of narration. Both his teaching and writings promoted a popular understanding and enthusiasm for astronomy, spreading Hell's reputation throughout Europe.
Among his adventures were experiments in magnetism applied to medicine. This was unchartered ground. By assuming very unconventional premises he started something quite remarkable. Using lodestone he devised an arrangement of magnetic plates for the lessening of pain from diseases, including attacks of rheumatism from which he himself suffered. He met with considerable success in relieving the pain. His magnetic medicine attracted the attention of a young man named Franz Mesmer, recently graduated from the Jesuit University of Dillingen in Bavaria. Mesmer disregarded the magnets and developed a different, but even more peculiar theory of healing based on circulating cosmic fluids in the body. The hypothesis of both men were found to be groundless but eventually investigators of these phenomena made mesmerism, or hypnotism, an accepted medical practice.
The story of Hell's detractors can be found in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography, in ISIS and in the modern histories of astronomy. Just before the Suppression, Jesuits directed 30 of the world's 130 major astronomical observatories. Maximilian Hell was so successful in setting up smaller observatories that in 1755 Maria Theresa of Austria and Hungary named him her court astronomer and commissioned him to organize a great central observatory in Vienna. He did so and remained its director for a quarter century. For 37 years he published his unique periodical Ephemerides Astronomicae containing scientific papers and observations which was widely used by the imperial navy, for purposes of the merchant fleet, geodetic surveys and the exact mapping of the empire.
In 1767 he accepted an invitation from King Christian VII of Denmark and Norway to direct the scientific expedition to the island station Vardø near Lapland within the Arctic Circle. The purpose was to gather data from the 1769 transit of Venus which crosses the face of the sun about twice a century. If the contact points of the sun with Venus, upon entering and exiting the sun's circumference, are properly observed from different vantage points on earth, this transit can provide data needed for computing the solar parallax, which can then be used to compute that elemental astronomical unit, the sun's distance to the earth. This adventure was an effort by scientists of various nationalities to simultaneously collect data in Vardø, Manila, Batavia, California, Peking, and Tahiti. The value of the sun's distance accepted today, 93 million miles, was determined at a later date when finer instruments and better methods were available. This 1769 effort, however, was significant because it was among the earliest examples of international scientific cooperation.
The day of the transit was 3 June, 1769 and the observers had the good fortune to have clear weather to make their observations, for which they sang a Te Deum in gratitude. Hell and his team stayed in Vardø for about eight months, spending most of their time collecting other scientific data for an anticipated encyclopedia concerning the arctic regions. This was to contain studies in biology, meteorology, oceanography, zoology, geography, natural history and linguistic analysis. Hell saw the transit as only one part of a larger expedition. Nothing came of Hell's encyclopedia, however, because of the Suppression of the Society in 1773.
Meanwhile the astronomers who had stayed home were anxious to get his observations, since Hell's ability to observe was considered the most reliable of the scientists involved. Hell, however, felt his first priority was to report to his Danish sponsor and would not be hurried or coerced. This irritated the French Academy who accused him of having nothing to report and of waiting so that he could create figures to correspond with the observations made elsewhere. This accusation implied the worst crime a scientist could commit. Eventually in 1772 Hell's observations with all their intricate detail were published.
For a time the ugly insinuations ceased until Carl Littrow became one of Hell's successors at the Vienna observatory with access to all the records. When Littrow found Hell's original data sheets concerning the 1769 transit he claimed to finally have evidence that Hell's figures had been falsified. He asserted that the data contained erasures which were corrected by scratching in a slightly different colored ink. This indictment of Hell was more serious than the original vague insinuations because it seemed to carry the aura of scientific proof. Thus was Hell discredited and his reputation as a reliable scientist destroyed.
It was not until a century later when the American astronomer, Simon Newcomb who was especially interested in the rare transits of Venus, examined Littrow's evidence and found it fictitious. Newcomb found that Hell's figures were exactly what they should have been. They were much more in accord with the true value of the parallax than the data of any other observer. The scratched out figures were merely a matter of Hell using a defective pen in the cold arctic air. Alterations had indeed been made by rubbing out the ink with a finger. But unquestionably this had been done before the ink had dried, not months later as had been charged. Finally, Newcomb discovered that Littrow was colorblind. In fact his defect was so severe that he "could not distinguish the tint of Aldebaran from the whitest star." Newcomb's imposing stature was such that all the charges against Hell were declared spurious by all astronomical societies. Hell was vindicated and his illustrious reputation recovered.
One century ago, in 1892, Georgetown's Jesuit astronomer John G. Hagan, S.J. wrote to Newcomb. "By this act you have obliged the Jesuits of all times and all places. It was fitting that this act of justice should be reserved to an American astronomer, who stands aloof from the petty quarrels of the old world." The reputable historian of science, George Sarton points out the lamentable fact that there is no vindication of a scientist's reputation which has been ruined by a false accusation of falsifying data, since careless historians often do not read the retractions. For this reason Sarton wrote more than one article to clear Hell's name, and closes one with the words: "Father Hell was a faithful servant of God, a conscientious and zealous astronomer, an honest man. Requiescat in pace."
1. Sommervogel, Carolus Bibliothèque de la compagnie de Jésus . Bruxelles:
Société Belge de Libraire, 1890-1960 Vol. IV pg. 237-258
2. Gillispie, Charles. C. ed., Dictionary of Scientific biography . 16 vols.
New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1970
References to Hell in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography are found
in Vol. 2 p599, Vol. 6 p233-235, Vol. 7 p580-1, Vol. 10 p34, Vol. 13 p39.
3. George Sarton, Vindication of Father Hell in ISIS #35 1944 pp. 97-105
4. Joseph Ashbrook, The Reputation of Father Hell in Sky And Telescope 4/61 p 213-214
5. Professor Simon Newcomb on Father Hell, S. J. in Woodstock Letters
Adventures of Some Early Jesuit ScientistsJosé de Acosta, S.J. - 1600: Pioneer of the Geophysical Sciences
François De Aguilon, S.J. - 1617: and his Six books on Optics
Roger Joseph Boscovich, S.J. - 1787: and his atomic theory
Christopher Clavius, S.J. - 1612: and his Gregorian Calendar
Honoré Fabri, S.J. - 1688: and his post-calculus geometry
Francesco M. Grimaldi, S.J. - 1663: and his diffraction of light
Paul Guldin, S.J. - 1643: applications of Guldin's Rule
Maximilian Hell, S.J. - 1792: and his Mesmerizing encounters
Athanasius Kircher, S.J. - 1680: The Master of a Hundred Arts
Francesco Lana-Terzi, S.J. - 1687: The Father of Aeronautics
Francis Line, S.J. - 1654: the hunted and elusive clock maker
Juan Molina, S.J. - 1829: The First Scientist of Chile
Jerôme Nadal, S.J. -1580: perspective art and composition of place
Ignace Pardies, S.J. - 1673: and his influence on Newton
Andrea Pozzo, S.J. - 1709: and his perspective geometry
Vincent Riccati, S.J. - 1775: and his hyperbolic functions
Matteo Ricci, S.J. - 1610: who brought scientific innovations to China
John Baptist Riccioli, S.J. - 167I: and his long-lived selenograph
Girolamo Saccheri, S.J. - 1733: and his solution to Euclid's blemish
Theorems of Saccheri, S.J. - 1733: and his non Euclidean Geometry
Christopher Scheiner, S.J. - 1650: sunspots and his equatorial mount
Gaspar Schott, S.J. - 1666: and the experiment at Magdeburg
Angelo Secchi, S.J. - 1878: the Father of Astrophysics
Joseph Stepling, S.J. - 1650: symbolic logic and his research academy
André Tacquet, S.J. - 1660: and his treatment of infinitesimals
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, S. J. - 1955: and The Phenomenon of man
Ferdinand Verbiest, S.J. - 1688: an influential Jesuit scientist in China
Juan Bautista Villalpando, S.J. - 1608: and his version of Solomon's Temple
Gregory Saint Vincent, S.J. - 1667: and his polar coordinates
Nicolas Zucchi, S.J. - 1670: the renowned telescope maker
Influence of Some Early Jesuit ScientistsThe 35 lunar craters named to honor Jesuit Scientists: their location and description
Post-Pombal Portugal opinion of Pre-Pombal Jesuit Scientists: a recent conference
Seismology, The Jesuit Science. a Jesuit history of geophysics
Another menu of Jesuit InterestJesuit history, tradition and spirituality
Visit the Jesuit Resource Page for even more links to things Jesuit.
Contact Information and Table of Contents for This Site Mathematics Department
Fairfield, CT 06430
Voice mail - 203 256-7222
These 13 polyhedra symbolize the 13 items of this page
which is maintained by Joseph MacDonnell, S.J.
They are the 13 Achimedean semiregular polyhedra.