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Chapter 6 (L-Me)
Not all, but many of these portraits came from a rare century-old work concerning famous Jesuits, Alfred Hamy's Galerie Illustree. The names are arranged alphabetically in eight chapters: A-Be, Bo-Cam, Can-Cos, Cot-Go, Gr-K, L-Me, Mi-Pe, Pi-Ri, Ro-St, Su-Z. At the end of each entry are listed, in abbreviated form, the specific sources which I used for writing the short sketch for each man. The eleven triliteral symbols (Ban, Bas, DSB, Ham, JLx, McR, JLP, O'M, Som, Tan, Tyl) signify that the information came from the following eleven books which are more fully documented in the Intoduction to Jesuit Portraits.
Ban = Bangert, William, S.J. A History of the Society of Jesus
Bas = Bernard, S.J. The English Jesuits
DSB = Gillispie, Charles. C. Ed., Dictionary of Scientific Biography
Ham = Hamy, Alfred, S.J. Galerie illustree
JLx = Koch, Ludwig, S.J. Jesuiten Lexicon
McR = McRedmond, Louis To the Greater Glory. New York: MacMillan, 1991
JLP = Mertz, James, S.J. and Murphy, John, S.J. Jesuit Latin Poets
O'M = O'Malley, John, S.J. The First Jesuits
Som = Sommervogel, Carolus Bibliothèque de la compagnie de Jésus
Tan = Tanner, Mathia, S.J. Societas Jesu.
Tyl = Tylinda, Joseph, S.J. Jesuit Saints and Martyrs
Claude Lacroix, S.J. (French: 1652-1714) was a moral theologian who taught at Munster and Cologne. His great 1714 work Theologia moralis became one of the outstanding theological works of the 18th century. Unfortunately, Claude found himself embroiled in disputes which concerned the numbers of gold pieces needed to constitute the "grave sum" in a theft, the number of grams of food that might be eaten on fast-days, the number of days a banned book can be kept and how many pages of such a book book may be read. He is used as an example of the similarity between Jesuit moral theology and the prescriptions of the Jewish Mishnah in the Talmud. When someone was trying to illustrate that the Jesuits and the Jews are alike in spirit, Jesuits were charged with having perverted the clear moral laws of the Gospel into "subtle Talmudic formulas". Nevertheless Theologia moralis went through 25 editions in only half a century and won for Claude the reputation of being one of the finest moralists of his age. One of the later editions served as a focal point of the opposition of the Jansenists to the Jesuits and was condemned by the parliament of Paris and publicly burned at Toulouse. (Ham, JLx, Som)
Joseph Lafiteau, S.J. (French: 1681-1746) served as a Visitor to the Jesuit mission in Canada after having served a term as mission director in Rome. He has been called "The Father of Cultural Anthropology" because of his 1724 book Customs of the American Indians which is a work of keen observation and understanding gained through many years of study of the Iroquois culture, language and habits. Joseph as well as other French Jesuits of the time followed the practice started by the Spanish and German Jesuit missionaries in Arizona and California of publishing their reflections concerning native American life. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
William Lamormaini, S.J. (Luxembourg: 1570-1648) served as confessor to Ferdinand II, Emperor of Austria, for the duration of the Thirty Years' War, prompting the papal nuncio at Vienna to report: "It is certain that the Jesuits, through the favor of the emperor, which cannot be overestimated, have attained to overwhelming power. They have the upper hand over everything. . . . Their influence has always been considerable, but it has reached its zenith since Father Lamormaini has been confessor to the emperor." In I629, another Jesuit confessor to France's Louis XIII, John Suffren, together with William Lamormaini tried to prevent France entering this War. Both thought they had succeeded, having convinced their respective rulers, but both had miscalculated the growing influence of Cardinal Richelieu who had seized control of the policy of France. He fired John Suffren and convinced the weak king not to make peace with Ferdinand but to enter the war against Austria and Spain. William Lamormaini won a later victory, however, by convincing Ferdinand II to undo past injustices against the Church by restoring the bishoprics, parishes, and monasteries taken by the Protestants. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Raphael Landivar, S.J. (Spanish: 1731-1793) was a missionary to Latin America and is called Guatemala's greatest poet. Even the taxi drivers can quote "The all-time poet laureate of Guatemala". The 15 books of his epic Rusticatio Mexicana are composed of 5,000 lines of Latin hexameters. He describes the Indian pastimes of handball, greased pole, cockfights and bull fights and he exhorts youth to appreciate nature's beautiful gifts. Originally buried in Bologna, his body was moved when Guatemala students petitioned their government to bring the remains of Guatemala's illustrious son home. The University in Guatemala is named Landivar in his honor. (JLx, Som)
Diego Laynez, S.J. (Spanish: 1512-1565) was a theologian and one of the first seven companions of Ignatius Loyola. He spent his life preaching and teaching in Italy, became Jesuit provincial in Italy and later the second Superior General of the Jesuits. Diego was one of the great men of the Catholic reform and, at his death, Pius V said that the Church had lost one of its best experts. During the Council of Trent he served as papal theologian and as a Council father and his five addresses to the Council were considered masterpieces of learning, pertinacity and clarity. He argued quite energetically against Spanish Bishops who opposed papal power over the episcopacy. As Superior General of the Jesuits he assisted the pope in carrying out the reforms of the Council. He had important contributions to make on subjects as diverse as justification, the certitude of the state of grace , penance and purgatory, an Index of Errors about the Sacraments, the Real Presence, penances and the Sacrifice of the Mass, Communion under both species for the laity, Holy Orders, annulment of clandestine marriages and the jurisdiction of bishops. At a fourth centenary celebration of the Council of Trent, Diego was considered one of the leading figures in the council's work. (Ban, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som)
Antonio Lecchi, S.J. (Italian: 1702-1776) was a physicist and specialized in hydrostatics.
Maria Theresa chose Antonio as her court mathematician and Pope Clement XIII made him director of hydraulics. When Clement XIV, who suppressed the Society, arrived on the scene, however, Antonio resigned from this position. Cardinal Albani regretted his departure and wrote a very flattering account of Antonio's scientific contributions to the Church in the Florence Gazette . (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
James Ledesma, S.J. (Spanish: 1519-1575) taught philosophy and theology before he entered the Society at some of the more celebrated universities of Europe: Salamanca, Paris and Louvain. He had studied at the universities of Alcalá, Paris, and Louvain and became one of the important architects of the educational program for the Jesuit schools. James published in Italy a catechism for the "very ignorant" and another for the "less ignorant." The general structure of catechisms were influenced by the catechism of Peter Canisius. James' work ran through many editions and translations well into the seventeenth century and were even used with the indigenous peoples in New France. (Ban, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som)
Simon LeMoyne, S.J. (French: 1604-1697) entered the Jesuit Novitiate at Rouen and later became an instructor there. After his ordination Simon was assigned to the Canadian Mission, arriving in the City of Quebec in 1638. He then went to the Huron country where, in the company of Brebeuf, Jogues, Daniel and Lalemant he quickly mastered the Huron, Iroquois and Algonquin languages - better, it is reported, than any of the 300 Jesuits who were to work in the New France mission from 1611 to 1800. He lived through the horror of the destruction of the Huron mission, after which he moved to Quebec.
Since the Iroquois were threatening the existence of New France, the French governor sent Simon as an ambassador of peace to the Iroquois and Onondaga in 1654. He made his tedious month-long journey by canoe which, when overturned on land, provided his only shelter from the rain and snow. He came across some of the Christian Hurons who were then captives of the Iroquois and also met Iroquois that he had befriended in the past. He was able to administer the sacraments to many along the way. Finally he arrived at the place of the council with the Iroquois at an Onondaga village, near what is now Syracuse. Simon was called Ondessonk (Eagle) by the Indians. He related his adventures in letters to France which were preserved in The Jesuit Relations (XVI #102-125). "At each of my presentations, they uttered a loud shout of applause from the depths of their chest, in evidence of their delight. I was occupied fully two hours in delivering my entire harangue, which I pronounced in the tone of a Captain - walking back and forth, as is their custom, like an actor on a stage." As a result of his moving presentation Simon was given the seat of honor and rejoicing started as soon as the Council declared their decision to accept his arguments and commit themselves to four propositions: that they would acknowledge the governor of New France as their master, that all assemblies and peace parleys would be held at Onondaga Village; that a site be chosen by the French for a settlement in their Onondaga country and finally that the French and Iroquois would henceforth live at peace with one another.
After this four-day meeting Simon set out for Quebec. He was given a few relics of his companions on the Huron mission: the New Testament of John de Brebeuf, S.J. and a small devotional work that had belonged to Charles Garnier, S.J., both of whom had been martyred by the Iroquois four years before. Simon's last recorded act of his ministry among the Onondagas on this visit occurred on August 15th when he baptized his first Onondaga convert, to whom he gave the name of John the Baptist, a zealous young captain, "chief of eighteen hundred men."
Then Simon related his experience on the shore of Onondaga Lake. "We arrived at the entrance to a little lake in a great basin that is half dried up, and taste the water from a spring of which these people dare not drink as they say there is an evil spirit in it that renders it foul. Upon tasting of it, I find it to be a spring of salt water; and indeed we made some salt from it, as natural as that which comes from the sea, and are carrying a sample of it to Quebec. This lake is very rich in salmon, trout and other fish." This is the first reference in history to the salt springs of Onondaga, which later became so well known and which contributed more than any other single factor to the growth and prosperity of the once twin villages of Salina and Syracuse.
Back in Quebec, Simon's report was favorably received and he made four subsequent journeys to the Iroquois country on missions of peace to the hostile Mohawks. He can properly be called the precursor of the Onondaga mission. He was more than ordinarily proficient in the Huron-lroquois dialects, as well as in the subtleties of Indian oratory and diplomacy. His writings in the form of diaries, letters and reports as found in the Jesuit Relations have preserved a simple and moving history of Central New York of those days. In 1946 the New York Jesuit Province founded a school in Syracuse and named it to honor Simon LeMoyne. (Ban, JLx, Som)
Leonard Lessius, S.J. (Flemish: 1554-1623) taught at the English College of Douai (Belgium) and at Louvain. He studied under the great Spanish Jesuit theologian Francisco de Suarez. At Louvain he quickly established a reputation for outstanding intellectual ability and was hailed as 'Prince of Philosophers' and 'Oracle of the Low Countries'. Lessius figured prominently in the controversies then raging on the nature of grace, adopting a position closely akin to that of the Spanish Jesuit Luis de Molina; in 1610 he published his principal work on this subject, De gratia efficaci. Lessius launched an attack on the divine right of kings as proposed by James I of England. In 1613 Suarez's writings on this subject were publicly burnt in London by royal command. But Lessius's most important book was De justitia et jure (1605), which was published throughout Europe in some forty separate editions. This work was notable especially for its analysis of contemporary commercial practice; Lessius' opinions on the morality of various business arrangements exercised a substantial influence on the thinking of statesmen and church leaders. King Albert the Pius always kept Lessius's book on justice on the table before him as his most trusted counselor when he held hearings, to show that his decisions were buttressed "by the arms of Austria and the wisdom of Lessius". Lessius made major contributions to the development of economic analysis. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
David Lewis, S.J. (English: 1617-1679) became a victim of the so-called Titus Oates plot. Titus was twice expelled from European Jesuit schools and was later refused admission into the Society, so he spread the story that the Jesuits were plotting to overthrow England's king and make the country Catholic once again, thereby depriving many landowners of the estates confiscated from Catholic lands. After David's arrest, one of his examiners was Titus Oates who was unable to make any charge stick, but David was condemned anyway. He then gave such a moving speech at the gallows that it was later published. "I believe you are here met not only to see a fellow-native die, but also with expectation to hear a dying fellow native speak. I suffer not as a murderer, thief, or such like malefactor, but as a Christian, and therefore am not ashamed. My religion is the Roman Catholic one; in it I have lived above these many years; in it I now die, and so fixedly die, that if all the good things in this world were offered me to renounce my faith, all should not move me one hair's breath from my Roman Catholic faith. A Roman Catholic I am; a Roman Catholic priest I am; a Roman Catholic priest of that religious order called the Society of Jesus I am, and I bless God who first called me." The hangman fled the scene, fearing the crowd would stone him but the job was finished by a man bribed to take the executioner's place. (Ban, Bas, Ham, Tyl)
Claude Linyères, S.J. (French: 1658-1746) taught mathematics at the college of La Flèche. He also directed many in the spiritual exercises of St. Ignatius, was superior of a retreat house and gave spiritual direction. He served as spiritual advisor for the Duchess of Orleans for for four years and for King Louis XV for 26 years. (Ham)
St. Ignatius Loyola, S.J. (Basque: 1490-1556) is the founder of the Society of Jesus, the author of the Spiritual Exercises , and the Patron Saint of all Jesuits. Over his own protests he was elected the first Superior General. The expansion of the Jesuit Society was nothing less than miraculous; during his 16 years as Superior General it had grown from 10 men to 1,000 men living in 101 houses. Ignatius was canonized in 1622.
Iñigo de Oñaz y Loyola was born in the Basque hill country, the youngest of 11 children. Having received only a superficial education, he was mainly interested in sports and military prowess. While defending a fort in Pamplona his leg was broken. During his convalescence he underwent a remarkable conversion and was determined to imitate the saints and to become a knight in the service of God.
Ignatius writing the Spiritual Exercises
After some years in prayer and penance in Manresa, near Barcelona, he received divine illumination by which the rest of his life would be guided. He wrote down his experiences in his famous book known as the Spiritual Exercises . These Exercises are not meant to be merely read - they are put into practice. They involve a process meant to free one to choose what is best for oneself in the light of first principles, and to bring a sense that God is at work in all things, animating and energizing them. These step-by-step guidelines for teaching the art of prayer and meditation are divided into four parts considering the sinful nature of mankind, the Incarnation of Christ, the Passion and, finally, the Resurrection. They are meant to lead an individual to find God in all things, to increase awareness of God's plan and the role one can play in bringing them to fulfillment.
Ignatius and Pope Paul III
In both Alcalá and Salamanca Ignatius was reported to the Spanish Inquisition and jailed. Later in Paris he gathered together six companions who determined to go to Rome and put themselves at the disposal of the pope who exclaimed on seeing them: "The finger of God is here." In 1540 Pope Paul III gave formal recognition to the Order which would profess the three customary vows of poverty, chastity and obedience along with a fourth vow of special obedience to the pope. The name Loyola is engraved on the walls of educational institutions throughout the world such as the Sorbonne in Paris and Columbia University in New York. (Ban, Cor, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som, Tyl)
John de Lugo, S.J. (Spanish: 1583-1660) taught theology and brought to the lecture halls of the College of Valladolid elegant expression, clear expositions and profound doctrine. John taught at the Roman College from 1621-1643 and then was made a cardinal. The cardinalate did not please him since he had to leave his theological research. One of his works was Justice and Law which was highly lauded by St. Alphonsus Liguori because of its lucid reasoning and accurate judgment. This book had a great influence on other theologians. John published little of the vast amount of material he had prepared because he was a perfectionist, polishing his works constantly. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Gabriel Malagrida, S.J. (Italian: 1689-1761) popularized the retreat movement in Portugal after having worked for 30 years in Brazil. This very popular septuagenarian became a victim of the Marquis de Pombal's machinations to suppress the Society in Portugal. Pombol's plan was to involve Jesuits in whatever scandal he could invent. His opportunity came one evening when Portugal's King Joseph secretly visited the Marchioness of Tavora. He was shot at by the jealous husband who was merely trying to discourage these trysts. Pombal had the whole Tavora family imprisoned along with their confessor Gabriel Malagrida, and tried to convince fellow Portuguese that it was a Jesuit plot to kill the king. "Who had ever heard of the husband of a king's mistress making difficulties for the king, especially resorting to force?" Pombal insisted that the violent action of the young Tavora nobleman was such an astonishing reaction that he must have been instigated to shoot the king by these crafty and audacious Jesuits. The charge was soon dropped, but Pombal would not give up and had Gabriel Malagrida imprisoned and tried for heresy because of his past writings. Gabriel was tried by the Inquisition and anxious to punish heretics of any kind. He was not the first Jesuit to be tormented by this tribunal. Gabriel was found guilty and was later burned at the stake. If it were not for the cowardice of Portugal's King Joseph, the Marquis de Pombal would not have this gruesome triumph over the Jesuits. Upon hearing of this crime Voltaire wrote:" Extreme embarrassment and absurdity have resulted in extreme horror." (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
John de Maldonado, S.J. (Spanish: 1534-1583) created a sensation when he lectured on philosophy and theology at the College of Clermont in Paris. His brilliant exposition and broad erudition so brought to life the traditionally boring courses in humane letters and philosophy, that crowds of excited students filled his classroom. Sometimes he had more than 1,000 students in his class and some even arrived two or three hours before the lecture to get a seat. John had broken with the older methods of commentary and showed how theology, studied in the documents of Scripture and patristic writings, was the best way to meet the contemporary intellectual challenges. Embarrassed by the numbers of students following Jesuits like John Maldonado, the university lecturers started a relentless campaign to dislodge this threatening Jesuit College of Clermont. They succeeded in getting rid of the troublesome John Maldonado by using Pope Gregory XIII who was worried about the turmoil at Paris. John was moved to the Sorbonne and then to Potiers, Bourges, Pont-à-Mousson and Bordeaux. (Ban, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som)
Ven. Jules Mancinelli, S.J. (Italian: 1558-1618) followed in the long lively Jesuit tradition of popular preaching begun by Ignatius and the earliest Companions. Jules brought the force of his energetic personality far beyond Italy by a strenuous campaign in dechristianized Dalmatia as well as to Constantinople where he gave renewed vigor to the Latin Catholics. He also aroused interest in reunion with Rome among the Orthodox, and brought comfort to the Christian slaves in Turkey. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Juan Mariana, S.J. (Spanish: 1537-1624) was a prodigious Castilian scholar who wrote on a wide variety of subjects. He is most remembered for his 1599 book The King and his Formation which recalls an unfortunate page of Jesuit history. One of his topics was the morality of tyrannicide. He supported the proposition that a tyrant should be removed from office, killed if necessary, except by poisoning, once the people had made the decision to do so. This was quickly and solemnly condemned by the Superior General Aquaviva and later by a General Congregation of the whole Society of Jesus. Careless historians have neglected to point out this Jesuit condemnation of Juan's ideas. Spaniards paid little attention to Juan's thesis, but it caused a great stir in France partly because of the assassination of Henry IV. A century later John's name occasioned the now-familiar image of Mariane found on many French stamps. This was meant to be a play on John Mariana's name, and was used as the symbol of the French Revolution. The French extremists used John Mariana's thesis to justify the excesses of the French Revolution. (Ban, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som)
Jacques Marquette, S.J. (French: 1637-1675) born in Laon, France was one of the earliest Europeans to encounter the Native American Indians. He spoke six Amerindian languages, and only once did he encounter hostile Indians, but even then, it was not long before he was smoking a peace pipe with them. James worked with the Illinois, the Pottawatimis, the Foxes, the Huron, the Ottawa and Sioux. When forced out by hostile Sioux he founded a new mission among the Mackinac which later became the Mission of St. Ignace. The Indians liked Black Robes such as James: "They slept on the ground, exposed themselves to all privations and did not ask for money." Primarily a missionary, James was most noted for his explorations, not the least of which was tracing the Mississippi and finding that it flowed not into the Atlantic, as was presumed, but into the Gulf of Mexico. For his invaluable explorations and his astonishing work with the Native American Indians he is celebrated with a heroic statue in Laon, Wisconsin chose to honor James as one of their two representatives in Statuary Hall in the Capital in Washington, D. C. James was only 38 when he died. (Ban, DSB, JLx, Som)
Marcel Mastrilli, S.J. (Italian: 1603-1637) was a martyr during the virulent anti-Catholic persecution in Japan in 1637 during which 13 percent of the Catholic population of 300,000 were martyred. For two days Marcel set the endurance record for the water torture, having water continually poured into the mouth so that only by frantic efforts could one breathe. Marcel had had a premonition of this martyrdom from Francis Xavier during prayer and later has become famous for his propagation of devotion to St.Francis Xavier. It was Marcel who started a devotion which has such wide appeal for centuries, the novena in honor of Francis Xavier held every March from 3/3 to 3/12. In 1635 during his stop in Lisbon while on his way to the Indies, Marcel preached a series of sermons on St. Francis Xavier at the Jesuit church of St. Roque and by doing so had launched the Novena of Grace . (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Bl. Julien Maunoir, S.J. (French: 1606-1683) was a home missionary in Brittany for 43 years, even though he had requested to go to Canada with his classmate Isaac Jogues. Having learned the Breton language while teaching as a scholastic in Quimper, he was found to be uniquely suited for this difficult task of evangelizing the impoverished people of Brittany. Julien became the principal cause of religious renewal there. His missions bore great fruit sometimes attracting 10,000 to 30,000 individuals. On these occasions he usually asked the parish priests, whose parishioners were attending the mission, to help in hearing confessions, catechizing, and distributing the Eucharist. When these priests saw the good that was being derived from these missions, seven of them asked their bishop's permission to join Julien in his work. A grateful Julian immediately began training these assistants, called Breton Missionaries . He started in 1651 with seven, but by 1665 there were 300, and by 1683 almost 1000. (Ban, Cor, Ham, JLx, Som, Tyl)
Balthasar Mendez de Loyola, S.J. (Moroccan: 1531-1567) was the son of the Sultan of Fez in Morocco and was raised a Muslim. Married at the age of 15 he soon became the parent of three children, but during a pilgrimage to Mecca, he was captured by a Christian garrison. Five years later he experienced a deep desire to become baptized, and in 1556 the year of Ignatius' death, he took the occasion of his baptism to change his last name from Mohammed Attaz to Mendez de Loyola. Later he joined the Society and went to work with Muslim slaves in Naples and Rome. (Ham, JLx)
Claude Ménestrier, S.J. (French: 1631-1705) taught literature at the Jesuit schools in Chambéry, Grenoble, Vienne, and Lyon. The French Jesuits meticulously developed drama in their schools as Jesuits in other countries had done. They placed special emphasis on ballet which had become very important in France. In 1682 Claude published his important work Ancient and Modern Ballets. There was great variety in these ballets, some allegorical, some historical, some honoring an important public event or person. Claude's plays were known for their elaborate stage settings. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Everard Mercurian, S.J. (Luxembourg: 1514-1580) served as the fourth Superior General of the Society. He brought to the office a great deal of administrative experience as provincial, assistant, and visitor in Germany and France. In 1577 he issued rules and job descriptions for some of the important offices in the Society. Everard also attempted to systematize the Society's apostolic works, especially education. He synthesized the many suggestions for the schools which came from the experience of the teachers and rectors. Directed by the Third General Congregation, he began the strenuous effort of evaluating the great mass of background material which had accumulated in order to create a comprehensive code on studies. This was later known as the Ratio Studiorum . From the time of Ignatius to the end of Everard's term of office the Society had grown to a little over 5,000 men in 21 provinces, 144 colleges, 10 professed houses, 12 novitiates, and 33 residences. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
S.G. James de Mesquita, S.J. (Portuguese: 1553-1614) served on the Japanese mission and once returned to Europe bringing four noble envoys chosen by recently converted Japanese princes. Wherever these four noble youths visited, they were greeted as royalty. And when they met the king of Portugal, it was as if four heads of state had come to Lisbon. Throughout these official visits James served as interpreter for the youths. Rome also celebrated the envoys entry surrounded by cardinals, bishops, knights and cavalry, as the four young men dressed in their princely ceremonial robes arrived. When James returned to Japan, however, he found that the emperor Hideyoshi had abandoned his sympathy for Christianity and his support of the Jesuits. Instead he banished them from the empire and James died while being sent into exile. (Tan, Tyl)
John-Baptist Messari, S.J. (German: 1673-1723) was one of four Jesuits martyred during the persecution in Tonkin between 1721 and 1723. It was part of the 100-year effort to suppress Christianity and during that time the native Christians suffered martyrdom by the thousands. (Ham)
Intoduction to Jesuit Portraits
Contents Names of 202 Jesuits
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 1 A to Be
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 2 Bo to Cam
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 3 Can to Cos
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 4 Cot to Go
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 5 Gr to K
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 6 L to Me
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 7 Mi to Pe
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 8 Pi to Ri
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 9 Ro to St
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 10 Su to Z