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Chapter 3 (Can-Cos)
Not all, but many of these portraits came from a rare century-old work concerning famous Jesuits, Alfred Hamy's Galerie Illustree. The names are arranged alphabetically in ten chapters: A-Be, Bo-Cam, Can-Cos, Cot-Go, Gr-K, L-Me, Mi-Pe, Pi-Ri, Ro-St, Su-Z. At the end of each entry are listed, in abbreviated form, the specific sources which I used for writing the short sketch for each man. The eleven triliteral symbols (Ban, Bas, DSB, Ham, JLx, McR, JLP, O'M, Som, Tan, Tyl) signify that the information came from the following eleven books which are more fully documented in the Intoduction to Jesuit Portraits.
Ban = Bangert, William, S.J. A History of the Society of Jesus
Bas = Bernard, S.J. The English Jesuits
DSB = Gillispie, Charles. C. Ed., Dictionary of Scientific Biography
Ham = Hamy, Alfred, S.J. Galerie illustree
JLx = Koch, Ludwig, S.J. Jesuiten Lexicon
McR = McRedmond, Louis To the Greater Glory. New York: MacMillan, 1991
JLP = Mertz, James, S.J. and Murphy, John, S.J. Jesuit Latin Poets
O'M = O'Malley, John, S.J. The First Jesuits
Som = Sommervogel, Carolus Bibliothèque de la compagnie de Jésus
Tan = Tanner, Mathia, S.J. Societas Jesu.
Tyl = Tylinda, Joseph, S.J. Jesuit Saints and Martyrs
St. Peter Canisius, S.J. (Dutch: 1521-1597) was a renowned preacher, theologian, founder of many of Europe's schools and a Doctor of the Universal Church. Canisius was one of the first Jesuits, was the first Jesuit to publish a book, the first to found a university and the first Jesuit university president. He distinguished himself as a theologian at the Council of Trent and was considered "the pride and ornament of all Germany" and called "the second Apostle of Germany" . In 1550 he entered Germany with only two Jesuits, but by 1580 their number had grown to 1,110.
Among the 37 books he wrote is his concise, lucid catechism which became a best seller, circulated in 15 languages. He was so pivotal in catechetical work that his name was synonymous with catechism . Centuries later one could still hear "Have you learned your Canisius? " Canisius found the effect of the Reformation on Catholics devastating. This calamity was apparent in an abysmal ignorance of the faith on the part of the laity as well as the clergy, whom he described as: "a scandal before God and the whole world." The more hopeless the situation seemed to be, however, the more energetic he became, stressing the need for education. He was instrumental in the founding of 18 colleges in as many cities with strong emphasis on academic excellence, insisting: "Better a college without a church than a college without a library." (Ban, Cor, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som, Tyl)
Vincenzo Carafa, S.J. (Italian: 1585-1649) was a prominent spiritual writer and later became the seventh Superior General of the Society. He was General for only three years, during which time he encountered the difficult case of the charismatic Portuguese Jesuit, Antonio Vieira. His desire to expel Vieira from the Society was thwarted by Portugal's King John IV. (Ban, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som)
John Carroll, S.J. (American: 1735-1816) was born in Upper Marlboro, MD and was educated in Europe where he joined the Jesuits. After the Suppression he returned to Maryland in 1774 to live on his family's plantation in Maryland and there ministered to the people in what is now the District of Columbia. He was appointed superior of the American clergy in 1786, whereupon he decided to found an academy of the same quality that he experienced in Europe. Thus Georgetown University was founded in 1789 (during the period of the Suppression of the Society) to supply intelligent Catholic laity for the young country. John was appointed bishop of Baltimore and gathered together fellow ex-Jesuits who formed the "Catholic Gentlemen of Maryland".
Young John Carroll
John had an enormous diocese to care for as well as this fledging academy with its own pioneering challenges. He was two centuries ahead of his time, arguing for liturgy in the vernacular, for participation of the laity in running the church with interference neither by the state, nor by Rome in choosing American bishops. He later witnessed his academy firmly established by congressional action and the gradual increase of enrollment. At the end of his life he wrote of his satisfaction that, after the restoration of the Society of Jesus, more Jesuits would be joining this small school in years to come: "Everyone must acknowledge that the Society of Jesus rendered no service more useful than that of the education of youth. . . On this academy is built all my hope of permanency and success for our holy religion in the United States." (Ban, Bas, Ham, JLx, Som)
Joseph Castiglione, S.J. (Italian: 1688-1766) was a Jesuit missionary in China, where he painted for the emperors at Peking and became a principal member of the Imperial Painting Bureau for 50 years. Joseph had composed some paintings in Genoa and then was sent to Peking. There he became known as Lang Shinning, a favorite artist and architect in the imperial court. He was active under three emperors: the grand K'ang Hsi, Young Caen and Ch ien Lung. The latter was an atrocious persecutor of Christians, but his high esteem for Joseph afforded opportunity to the painter to intercede for his fellow Christians. Joseph brought with him a competence in European painting and was able to please his imperial patrons with perspective portraits, narrative accounts of imperial conquests, and studies of nature. His fusion of Western and Chinese elements may be seen in a wide hand scroll, about 30 feet long, representing 100 horses which is kept in the National Palace Museum, Formosa, and is said to have an almost surrealistic effect. He did this half a century before anyone in Europe would ever succeed in painting such complicated action .
Another scroll, a painting about 25 feet long, is considered a true likeness of the Emperor, Ch'ien Lung. Joseph also served also as architect for the Emperor's Summer Palace which gave the Emperor, Ch'ien Lung, his wish to have a Chinese equivalent of Versailles. Joseph is the only European painter recorded in the Chinese work History of Painting , composed of 72 chapters by P'eng Jun-ts'an about 1800.
Part of Joseph Castiglione's enormous painting of the 100 horses
For Joseph's seventieth birthday the emperor sent a procession to his dwelling together with a eulogy inscribed by himself. Upon the occasion of Joseph's death the emperor issued an edict which proclaimed: "Lang-Shih-ning (Joseph), who came from a foreign country, has been in service at the court since the reign of K'ang Hsi. He was diligent and careful, and the honor of the third degree had been conferred on him. Now he has become sick and has died. In consideration of his many years of service and his advanced age of nearly eighty years, it is hereby ordered that he be given the rank of a Vice-President of a Board and 300 ounces of silver for his funeral expenses, in order to show my special regard for him." His fellow Jesuits stated that: "With his art Joseph promoted the cause of Christianity more than any one else had." A very high encomium coming from men who had known Ricci, Verbiest, Schall and other giants of the China mission. (Ban, JLx)
Nicholas Caussin, S.J. (French: 1583-1651) was a spiritual advisor to King Louis XIII, appointed by Cardinal Richelieu. Nicholas gave the reasons for his appointment: "The Minister of State, Richelieu, who appoints the king's confessor without leaving him any choice, looks for men who not only have the reputation of leading a good life, but at the same time are completely devoted to him. He now thinks that I shall be weak enough to tolerate evil deeds. But I will have no other care than to be as much use as possible to the Church and the public good . . . and to combat the evil deeds which the royal purple commits. Is not the harm done by the sins of monarchs, and the infection of their bad example, the greater in proportion as their position is an exalted one?" The sins which Caussin had in mind consisted in the king's following of Richelieu's counsels. These amounted to concluding alliances with Protestants and even with Turks, in order to make war on the Catholic empire of the Hapsburgs. In fiery indignation, Caussin, in the year I637, gave an address to the king, and declared that the plans of the French government were absolutely detestable. This speech caused the dismissal of Caussin from the court. Richelieu imprisoned Nicholas as a political offender. After the deaths of Louis XIII and Richelieu in 1643, Nicholas returned to Paris, where he became confessor and spiritual director of a number of leading noblemen. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Thomas Ceva, S.J. (Italian: 1648-1737) was a geometer and carried on extensive correspondence with the famous mathematicians of his day. An essay of his appears at the end of one of the works of mathematician Guido Grandi, a Camaldolese monk. He invented a device to divide an angle into an arbitrary number of parts; 10 years later the device was claimed by L'Hospital, without any credit to Thomas Ceva. He brought Newton's theory of gravitation to Italy. Thomas was a poet also and his poem "Jesus Puer " (Milan 1690) went through many printings, was translated into several languages, and occasioned many commentaries. In fact, Thomas has been considered one of the great Jesuit poets, despite the fact that he came from a famous mathematical family. "Ceva's theorem" is named for his brother Giovanni Ceva. (Ban, Bas, Cor, DSB, Ham, JLx, McR, JLP, O'M, Som)
Francis de la Chaize, S.J. (French: 1624-1709) was the most renowned of all Jesuit royal confessors. He served as spiritual advisor to King Louis XIV for 34 years, during which time he disagreed with the pope's view on the indirect power the papacy had on the temporal matters of the king. A section of Paris, a Metro station and Paris' most famous cemetery are all named to honor François. (DSB, Ham, JLx, Som, Tyl)
Peter F. X. Charlevoix, S.J. (French: 1682-1761) traveled widely, especially in America and in 1744 described his experiences in his book The History and General Description of New France which is still used for the study of Canadian origins. He also wrote of the Paraguay Reductions relating how the Jesuits had introduced into the settlements the Spanish custom of celebrating feasts with music and dances to help the Indians find greater joy in Christianity. He described their intricate and complicated dances, their games of chivalry, their ability to walk on stilts six yards high and also their expertise on the tight-rope. He was especially pleased with their performances in the short dramas he wrote for them. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
St. Peter Claver, S.J. (Spanish: 1580-1654) worked for 35 years helping to alleviate the sufferings of the victims of Cartagena's despicable slave trade. He referred to himself as "the slave of the slaves forever." His missionary vocation had been inspired by a Jesuit Brother, St. Alphonsus Rodriguez, S.J., who urged him: "Your mission is to the West Indies. Why don't you go there and work for the Lord"? He did go. He went to Cartagena in Colombia and dedicated his energy to the poor people who had been shipped like cattle from Africa to Cartagena only to be sold to the highest bidder. It was said of him that he seemed to be everywhere at once because of the incredible speed with which he went about visiting the sick and instructing the ignorant, even in the scorching sun, drenching rain or biting wind which usually kept many of the inhabitants of Cartagena indoors. When the wretched slaves caught sight of him they clapped their hands by way of salute. Peter managed to convince the local authorities to issue a law that no new arrivals be baptized until they received adequate instructions. He then used this law to delay their departure into a life of slavery by prolonging his catechism classes, much to the chagrin of the slave dealers. Peter also irritated the wealthy citizens who came for the sacrament of Penance and found that they had to wait in line along with the slaves. Many of his own community were decimated by the plague that was ravaging Cartagena, and eventually Peter was struck down and unable to continue his apostolate for the last few years of his life.He was esteemed as a saint in his own time and stories of his miracles were commonplace. When he died fervor seized the whole city to honor him as a saint. The Jesuit college was besieged by crowds who came to venerate his remains. Slaves came from all parts of the city and neighboring towns. He was declared the Patron Saint of African missionaries. (Ban, Cor, Ham, JLx, Som, Tyl)
Francis Xavier Clavijero, S.J. (Mexican: 1731-1787) was a Jesuit scholar quite familiar with Europe's latest advances in philosophy, science, and history. He excelled as a linguist, historian, philosopher, writer and teacher. He taught in the Mexican Indian schools bringing many imaginative initiatives with him. Francis stood for the finest of the Catholic Enlightenment in Mexico. Angered by Europe's disdain for native American culture, he wrote his authoritative Ancient History of Mexico , a painstaking portrayal of the culture of Aztec Mexico. This distanced the intellectuals of Mexico from those of Spain. He has been praised as an intellectual leader who prepared the way for Mexican independence and is interred in the National Hall of Fame in the Rotunda of Illustrious Men in Mexico City because of his influence in preparing the way for Mexican independence. (Ban, DSB, JLx, Som)
Christopher Clavius, S.J. (German: 1538-1612) was one of the earliest Jesuits. He was professor of mathematics at the Roman College for 45 years and during this time won the respect and friendship of virtually every significant astronomer-mathematician of his day. He was a life-long friend of Galileo. He exerted a wide influence on the schools of Europe as well as of China through his Jesuit pupils laboring there. The historian of science George Sarton calls him "the most influential teacher of the Renaissance." Pope Sixtus V said, and later historians have echoed the sentiment: "Had the Jesuit order produced nothing more than Clavius, on this account alone, the order should be praised." Later mathematicians such as Leibniz, co-discoverer of Calculus, became interested in mathematics by reading his works. His Euclidis elementorum became the standard text in the European schools and led to his being called "the Euclid of the l6th Century". This illustrious scientist was the one to whom scholars and potentates would entrust with the most sensitive scientific problems of the day. Clavius anticipated some mathematical developments, such as the decimal point, parenthesis, use of logarithms and the vernier scale.
It was Clavius who replaced the Julian calendar with today'sGregorian calendar. He found that a solar year could not keep up with the Julian year, being 664 seconds longer than it was supposed to have been. In an 800 page book Clavius explained the principles and the rules needed to correct this error. He did this in a time of primitive mathematical tools when long division was an advance college-level course. Implementation of Clavius' plan was not an immediate and universal success. Of the many attempts to solve the calendar problem, a few were slightly more precise than Clavius', but required a thorough knowledge of astronomy to compute any date. Kepler, defending Clavius' simple plan, said: "After all, Easter is a feast, not a planet!". Joseph Scaliger, author of a competing plan, took the rejection of his plan less than gracefully and referred to Clavius as nothing more than a "German potbelly". Scaliger later, in a cheerier mood, acknowledged his esteem for Clavius saying: "A censure from Clavius is more palatable than the praise of other men". The Clavius calendar had a fate similar to the adoption of the metric system in America today. The populace became disoriented and windows were broken in the houses of the European Jesuits who were blamed for the change. The Orthodox Church saw it as a Roman intrusion (which it was), and Protestant countries were reluctant to accept any decree from a pope. England did not adopt Clavius' calendar until 1751, while Orthodox Russia would require the Bolshevik revolution before it adopted the Clavius calendar.
Clavius made the following observations about mathematical training necessary for Jesuits. "Many a professor of philosophy has made no end of mistakes because of his ignorance of mathematics. Once a month scholastics should be gathered to hear original demonstrations of the propositions of Euclid. That the Society may be able always to have capable teachers of mathematics, a number of men fit and able to undertake such positions ought to be chosen and organized in a private academy for the study of mathematics so that they might support each other". Faced with mounting scientific problems, Clavius' successor, Christopher Grienberger threw up his hands in despair and said: "If only Clavius were alive now! How I miss his counsel!" (Ban, DSB, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som)
S. G. Peter de Cloriviere, S.J. (French: 1735-1818) entered the English Jesuit Province at Liège in France and was professed the year of the Suppression, 1773. Peter was as "tough as a pirate", so anticipating a period of Jesuit absence, he helped organize groups of Jesuits under the titles of "The Fathers of the Sacred Heart of Jesus", "The Society of the Heart of Jesus" and "The Fathers of Faith". He was not a man to accept punishment passively, and so he invited one of his friends to participate in a plot aimed at "evangelical vengeance," consisting of offering up prayer for those leaders guilty of the "destruction" of the Society, starting with the rulers of France. At the restoration of the order, Peter, 80 years old, was the only survivor of the French province at the time of its dissolution.
Destriction of a Jesuit school in Portugal
He had lived in Paris, concealed in a cellar most of the time, during the whole period of the Revolution, but was imprisoned when Napoleon came into power and was incarcerated in the Temple prison for five years. In 1814 at the restoration, he was entrusted by the Superior General of the order with the reestablishment of the Society of Jesus in France. With the aid of the "Fathers of the Faith of Jesus" he enrolled a large number of novices and, during the few years that elapsed before his death, Peter succeeded in establishing a new and vigorous Jesuit Province in France. (Ban, Cor, JLx, Som, Tyl)
Bl. Dominic Collins, S.J. (Irish: 1567-1602) was born into an illustrious noble family and given a superb education. He became an naval officer of superior quality in both France and Spain, then joined the Jesuits as a Coadjutor Brother. He went to help the beleaguered Catholics in England but was captured by the English bounty hunters. He was interrogated by Queen Elizabeth's deputy Mountjoy who had heard so much about the distinguished background of this naval hero and so he took the occasion to try to convert Dominic to the Church of England and to make him an officer in the British navy. Dominic would have none of it and so was brought to the gallows at Youghal, where he gave a memorable exhortation to his fellow Irishmen who were present. "Our ancestors have given their lives in bold profession of their Faith. Now it is our turn to uphold that Faith to the last breath. It is in the defense of my faith that I wish to lay down my life." The foreign agents glared at this fearless man who was about to leave life as he had left title and fortune while exhorting his compatriots to remain unshaken in their attachment to the ancient Faith. The Commandant, seeing the crowd swayed by one of their own, ordered him pushed off the ladder. It was done. Dominic was disemboweled and quartered. Then with mindless incongruity the executioner held up Dominic's heart chanting the quaint formula: "God save the Queen." (Ban, Cor, McR, Tyl)
St. Claude de Colombiere, S.J. (French: 1641-1682) was the spiritual director of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque, a Visitation nun at a convent at Paray-le-Monial. In an apparition to her, Christ called Claude "My Faithful Servant and Perfect Friend". He also informed Sister Margaret that the Jesuits, with Claude acting as intermediary, would spread devotion to the Sacred Heart: "Go to My servant, Father Claude de la Colombiere, and tell him from Me to do all in his power to establish this devotion and give this pleasure to My Heart." Accordingly, on Friday, June 21, 1675, the first Feast of the Sacred Heart was celebrated privately by the priest and Margaret Mary. Both were to be apostles of the Sacred Heart, but each in a different way.
Claude was later sent to London, but with the Catholic Faith outlawed and the penalty of death set on those who practiced it, England was an impossible place for public devotion to the Sacred Heart. Claude, in disguise, secretly visited the persecuted Catholics and through private conversation and the confessional he taught them a fourfold means of honoring the Sacred Heart: adoration, love, imitation, and reparation. In 1678, when the bogus "Popish Plot," hatched by Titus Oates and his conspirators roused the Protestants against the Catholics, Claude was banished from England on a charge of conspiracy against the government. Colombiere's enemies knew he was innocent, but they wanted to be rid of this Jesuit who was winning Englishmen back to the Church they had abandoned. (Ban, Bas, Cor, Ham, JLx, Som, Tyl)
Ralph Corby, S.J. (Irish: 1598-1644) was called "The Apostle" by the poor Catholics of England to whom he administered the sacraments for 12 years before he was captured by the English priest-hunters and brought to the Old Bailey prison. There he was tried, found guilty of being a Catholic priest and condemned to death. He was visited by ambassadors from Spain, Bavaria and France. Ralph along with another Jesuit, John Duckett, was hanged, drawn and quartered. Before Ralph was born, his parents had been Protestants but converted to Catholicism. They found that they had to move to Ireland to avoid persecution. Ralph was not the only religious in his family: his two brothers became Jesuit priests, his father became a Jesuit Brother, his mother and two sisters became Benedictine Nuns. (Ban, Bas, Ham, Som, Tyl)
Giulio Cordara, S.J. (Italian: 1704-1773) lived through the depressing years of the Suppression and was a friend of the Superior General Laurence Ricci. This scholarly historian said that the latter was too gentle a man to cope with the fierce treatment of the Society at the hands of her enemies. He was convinced that Ricci offered too little resistance to the organized slanders by Catholic churchmen, whereas not an inch of ground should have been yielded. Ricci on the other hand thought that the only way the storms would pass was by means of silence and patience. Giulio was aware of the enmity at Rome of the most virulent kind against the Jesuits and felt that these pockets of hostility in Rome rather than the pressure of the Bourbon courts accomplished the Suppression of the Society. (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Francis Coster, S.J. (French: 1532-1619) was received into the society by Ignatius who was impressed by Francis' wit and sense of humor. Francis taught astronomy and Sacred Scripture and was one of the great Jesuit Latin poets. He was delegate to three General Congregations, served as rector three times, twice as provincial of Belgium and once as provincial of the Rhine province. Once he had been insulted by Lucas Osiander, one of Martin Luther's followers, in an insipid anagram. One of his community, a mathematician-poet, Charles Malapert, answered the insult in an anagram on Osiander's name. The letters in the two men's names are rearranged to spell out the verses. Osiander's anagram reads: "You certainly are an African ass; (sic! that's sure.)". Malapert's answer reads: "You jackass, you can't graze here; go back to your thistles". Anagrams were immensely popular in the seventeenth century. Coster himself had written an essay to answer Osiander, and complained in the dedicatory letter that the eight theses that Osiander was attacking had been published twenty years before and that they were objectionable to Calvinists, but not to Lutherans. The full exchange is found in Jesuit Latin Poets by J. J. Mertz and J. P. Murphy. (Ban, Ham, JLx, JLP, Som)
Intoduction to Jesuit Portraits
Contents Names of 202 Jesuits
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 1 A to Be
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 2 Bo to Cam
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 4 Cot to Go
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 5 Gr to K
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 6 L to Me
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 7 Mi to Pe
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 8 Pi to Ri
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 9 Ro to St
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 10 Su to Z