Chapter 1 (A-Be)
Not all, but many of these portraits came from a rare century-old work concerning famous Jesuits, Alfred Hamy's Galerie Illustree. The names are arranged alphabetically in ten chapters: A-Be, Bo-Cam, Can-Cos, Cot-Go, Gr-K, L-Me, Mi-Pe, Pi-Ri, Ro-St, Su-Z. At the end of each entry are listed, in abbreviated form, the specific sources which I used for writing the short sketch for each man. The eleven triliteral symbols (Ban, Bas, DSB, Ham, JLx, McR, JLP, O'M, Som, Tan, Tyl) signify that the information came from the following eleven books which are more fully documented in the Intoduction to Jesuit Portraits.
Ban = Bangert, William, S.J. A History of the Society of Jesus
Bas = Bernard, S.J. The English Jesuits
DSB = Gillispie, Charles. C. Ed., Dictionary of Scientific Biography
Ham = Hamy, Alfred, S.J. Galerie illustree
JLx = Koch, Ludwig, S.J. Jesuiten Lexicon
McR = McRedmond, Louis To the Greater Glory. New York: MacMillan, 1991
JLP = Mertz, James, S.J. and Murphy, John, S.J. Jesuit Latin Poets
O'M = O'Malley, John, S.J. The First Jesuits
Som = Sommervogel, Carolus Bibliothèque de la compagnie de Jésus
Tan = Tanner, Mathia, S.J. Societas Jesu.
Tyl = Tylinda, Joseph, S.J. Jesuit Saints and Martyrs
José de Acosta, S.J. (Spanish: 1540-1600) is called the Pliny of the New World because of his book Natural and Moral History of the Indies which provided the first detailed description of the geography and culture of Latin America, Aztec history and - of all things - the uses of coca. For his work on altitude sickness in the Andes he is listed as one of the pioneers of modern aeronautical medicine. José was far ahead of his time in the selection and description of his observations. Not satisfied, however, with mere descriptions, he tried to explain causes. José was one of the earliest geophysicists, having been one of the first to observe, record and analyze earthquakes, volcanoes, tides, currents, magnetic declinations and meteorological phenomena. He denied the commonly held opinion that earthquakes and volcanoes originated from the same cause. Especially interesting was his explanation of the origin of the world's trade winds: he offered the earliest scientific explanation of the tropical trade winds. José traveled frequently through Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Mexico and he was the first European to systematize the geography of the New World.
José described in detail the Mexican ideograms and can truly be called the first of the true Americanists. He learned enough of the indigenous cultures to write a trilingual catechism. Experts on American ethnology have praised José insightful understanding of the origins of the Native Americans: that they came from Asia by way of a now-submerged land connection with Alaska, and the fact that they then switched from hunting to urban living and built the magnificent cities that the Spanish conquistadors found. "It was an astonishing bit of scholarly deduction for the time, given the absence of knowledge about the existence of such a land bridge." (Ban, DSB, JLx, O'M, Som)
Francis X. Alegre, S.J. (Mexican: 1729-1788) a brilliant scholar, was forced to leave Mexico in 1767 when Spain exiled all Jesuits from its colonies. Francis along with Clavijero, Abad, Landivar, Maneiro, and other Jesuits banished from Mexico from 1767 to 1816 did not lead any revolts against their Spanish leaders, but from their places of exile, they produced literary works which convinced the world that their native land was very different from Spain and that Mexicans were entitled to their own way of life. The profound importance of these Jesuits in establishing an intellectual climate for Mexico's Age of Independence is a matter of history. Francis in many ways recapitulates the artistic and cultural possibilities latent within colonial Mexico. He is at once a dedicated classicist and historian and also a man who developed and maintained intellectual integrity by serious and original scholarship in many fields. His work and that of his Jesuit companions and their students reveal the intensity of culture, and the universality of intellectual concerns that colonial Mexican society gave birth to in the last decades of Spanish domination.
Francis showed an abiding interest in the vernacular literatures of Europe and America in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. His comparative method prefigures by half a century the theories of comparative literature to be later elaborated in France. His approach, in addition, sets a pattern for the study of world literature. Scholars after Alegre, especially those of the nineteenth century, were to exert one of the greatest efforts in human history precisely to flesh out the comparative and historical investigations that Alegre suggests in his Arte poetica . For all these reasons, therefore, Alegre deserves credit as a literary critic of significance not only within the framework of Mexican literary history but within literary history itself. A century after his death all his unpublished works were collected and published. His major contribution was a very valuable history of Mexico. Francis, one of New Spain's most accomplished scholars, at one time had a crater on the moon named in his honor: it was in the sixth octant of the early editions of lunar maps, but has recently been renamed. (Ban, DSB, Ham, JLx, Som) and also Francisco Javier Alegre by Allan Deck
Ven. Apollinaris de Almeida, S.J. (Spanish: 1587-16="3"8) went to Ethiopia as bishop to succeed the Jesuit Patriarch Affonso Mendez during the reign of the negus (emperor) Susenyos who had become a Catholic. Because of Catholicism's strict moral code, most of the political leaders and wealthy citizens revolted, forcing Susenyos out of office and ordering the Jesuits to leave the country. Jesuits did not obey this expulsion order so Apollinaris along with others were arrested, imprisoned in an Orthodox monastery and eventually hanged or stoned to death. (Ban, JLx, Som, Tan, Tyl)
Joseph M. Amiot, S.J. (French: 1718-179="3") was a missionary to China who specialized in physics, and also had great talent for music. He mastered not only Chinese, but also the Tartar language and wrote extensively about the state of Chinese science. He had earned the confidence of the Chinese emperor Kien-Long, and after the Suppression of the Jesuits in 177="3" he continued his work in Peking until he died with the support of the same French government that suppressed the Jesuits. (Ban, DSB, Ham, JLx, Som)
Bl. Joseph Anchieta, S.J. (Canarian: 15="3"="3"-1597) was a missionary to Brazil and eventually became the National Apostle of Brazil, because he is a co-founder of the cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, having led a handful of Indians from their inhospitable surroundings to settle in the fertile plains. While young he dislocated his spine, so after he joined the Jesuits he was sent to Brazil for its mild climate in the hope that there his back would improve. It never did, however, and he was in pain for the rest of his life. He and Emanuel Nóbrega, S.J. arrived at the village of Piratininga on the feast of St. Paul so they named this mission Sao Paulo. For the next two decades Anchieta remained in the Sao Paulo district. There he completed a grammar and dictionary which were used by the Portuguese settlers and missionaries.
Joseph Ancieta in Brazil
In 155="3" he made his first contact with the Tupi Indians living on the outskirts of the settlement and since he was adept at languages and within a short time learned the Tupi-Guarani language of the Indians. Later Joseph was detained as a hostage by the menacing Tamoyo tribe and during these five months of loneliness and frustration, he occupied himself by composing a Latin poem in honor of the Blessed Virgin. Since he had no writing supplies he wrote in the wet sand and then committed the verses to memory. When he again reached Sao Vicente he set his poem down on paper: it had 4,172 lines!
Joseph succeeded in converting the Maramomis tribe, and it was during this period that he began to write plays for his students to perform. These plays were written in different languages: Latin, Spanish, Portuguese, and Tupi. Because his dramas were the first to be written in Brazil Joseph is accorded the title Father of Brazilian national literature . In his letters he warned his successors that fervor was not enough for success in the mission: "You must come with a bag-full of virtues." This "wonder-worker of the New World" labored among the natives for 44 years. (Ban, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som, Tyl)
John Andrés, S.J. (Spanish: 1740-1817) spearheaded a Spanish movement of literary criticism and was one of the world's first authors to trace out in broad lines a synthesis of all literary history. Though he never subscribed to any of Jean Jacques Rousseau's theological errors, he admired his literary style and gave perhaps the clearest expression of the opinion the Spanish Jesuits had of Jean Jacques Rousseau. In his great work, the Origin, Progress and Present State of All Literature , Juan criticized Rousseau's Nouvelle Heloise , admiring the literary merits while censuring the moral and theological weaknesses. John continued his scholarship during the years of the Suppression and in 1804 when Naples allowed the reestablishment of the Society John gathered Jesuits together to continue the work they had started before 177="3". (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Bl. Jerome De Angelis, S.J. (Italian: 1568-162="3") sailed for Japan shortly after his ordination, but because of navigation problems did not arrive for six years, just in time for one of Japan's terrible persecutions of the Christians. During a brief interval much had changed in Japan's attitude toward the Jesuits. Xavier could boast some thousand converts to Christianity and Xavier's successor, Cosme de Torres, increased the number to ="3"0,000 within the next 20 years. Since there were never more than nine Jesuits in Japan until 156="3", the increment was very encouraging and Jesuits thought that Japan was their most promising mission. Later Luis de Almeida came; he had the reputation for best understanding the Japanese and he was esteemed by them for his other skills, which were manifested in many ways, including the establishment of several medical clinics and orphanages. After Jerome De Angelis arrived he spent 12 years working with the Nagasaki Christian population until the 1614 edict expelling all Jesuits and bringing an end to the Catholic missions in Japan. Jerome went into hiding in Nagasaki so he could continue to comfort the Japanese Christians during this terrible time. To conceal his priestly identity, he disguised himself as a merchant and continued to minister to his people. But eventually Jerome was arrested with 47 Christians who were all burned to death. (Som, Tan, Tyl)
Claudius Aquaviva, S.J. (Italian: 154="3"-1615) served for ="3"4 years as the fifth Superior General. He was only ="3"7 and had been in the Society only 14 years when he began the longest term of all 29 Generals. During his term the size of the Society almost tripled moving from 5,000 to 1="3",000. Claudius codified Jesuit educational procedures and was quite concerned about missiological questions such as the adaption of the message of the Faith to the cultures of China, Japan and India. (Ban, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som)
Bl. Rudolph Aquaviva, S.J. (Italian: 1550-158="3") became a martyr in India on the orders of a village sorcerer who felt threatened by the impact Rudolph had on his villagers. Nephew of the fifth Jesuit Superior General, Rudolph Aquaviva had trouble convincing his family of his Jesuit vocation. Once he succeeded and finished his studies he was chosen along with two other Jesuits to explain Christianity to India's enlightened mogul, Akbar, who had already invited Zoroastrian, Moslem, and Brahmin theologians to discuss their creeds in his imperial court in Fatehpur. Aware that Rudolph, for all his mildness, was a suasive debater, Akbar cautioned him against offending the sensitivities of his adversaries. The theological discussion lasted for three months and Akbar showed his sympathy with Rudolph's position by publicly walking with him with his arm about his neck. He was, however, seriously troubled by the mysteries of the Trinity and the Incarnation, but the real stumbling block to accepting Christianity was that he would have to give up his harem. Rudolph's hope for the mass conversion of India was not realized. Then he was called to become a superior in Salsette, south of Goa. It was during a visit to one of his mission stations that he was hacked to death by the jealous sorcerer's accomplices.
(Ban, Ham, JLx, Som, Tan, Tyl)
St. Edmund Arrowsmith, S.J. (English: 1585-1628) became a martyr of England. His parents were persecuted because they had refused to attend Protestant services and had even harbored priests in their home. As a layman Edmund worked among the beleaguered English Catholics for 15 years in Lancashire. He was well loved because of his pleasant disposition, his sincerity and indefatigable energy. He was quite outspoken so in 1622 he was arrested for the first time and put into prison where he boldly argued religious questions with the local Protestant bishop. It was to the advantage of Elizabeth's governors and hierarchy, who were living on confiscated Catholic property, to maintain among the public a distrust of Catholic priests as agents of Catholic Spain and also to nourish the fear of an imminent Spanish invasion. To keep all this in place Elizabeth had her own Inquisition.
In these unpredictable times Edmund was unexpectedly released from prison because of a pardon given by King James I. After making the Spiritual Exercises Edmund entered the Jesuits and returned to Lancashire for the remaining five years of his life. He was arrested again by the priest hunters and imprisoned on charges of being a priest. He decided to let the court do their duty and prove the charge rather than help them with a confession, replying: "Would that I were worthy of being a priest." As soon as the jury did find him guilty of being a Jesuit priest he exclaimed: "Thanks be to God." When he was brought to execution he prayed for everyone in the kingdom then said: "Be witnesses with me that I die a constant Roman Catholic and for Christ's sake; let my death be an encouragement to your going forward in the Catholic religion." (Ban, Cor, JLx, Tyl)
Edmund Auger, S.J. (French: 15="3"0-1591) was a Latin scholar and very effective preacher; in fact he is said to be "among the five greatest preachers of all time." It was he who initiated the remarkably successful tradition of very suasive Jesuit oratory in France that brought Calvinists back to the Catholic Church in large numbers (40,000 to 70,000 according to the historian Alfred Hamy). In 156="3" Edmund wrote a catechism to answer "the errors of our times", and in particular the teachings of Calvin. It was initially popular but since it was so polemical and theoretical, it was soon replace by the catechism of Canisius. Edmund was friend, counselor and confessor to the French King Henry III who, in gratitude to Auger, gave the Society the beautiful College de la Trinité. Edmund started another tradition as the first of many Jesuit confessors to French kings. Upon his death he was given the title: Père de la patrie . (Ban, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som)
Bl. Ignatius de Azevedo, S.J. (Portuguese: 1527-1570) was one of the Forty Martyrs of Brazil who met their death off the Canary Islands at the hands of Huguenots. Ignatius had worked in Rome as procurator for India and Brazil, then the Superior General, Francis Borgia assigned him to Brazil as Visitor to find how Rome could help the Jesuits working there. The answer was more Jesuits, so Ignatius went to visit the Spanish and Portuguese provinces of the Society to seek volunteers for the Brazil mission and succeeded in gathering 49 young Jesuit volunteers.
The 40 martyrs
In spite of the clear danger of pirate ships they sailed off in two ships. Ignatius expressed his feeling: "If the Huguenots should capture us, what harm can they do? The most they can do is to send us speedily to heaven." On July 15, 1570 as they were heading into the Port of Palms, near the Canary Islands, one of the two ships, with 40 Jesuits aboard, was overtaken by five faster pirate ships under the command of a French Huguenot, formerly a Catholic, now a declared enemy of Jesuits. When the pirates boarded the ship and saw Fr. Azevedo in the center of the ship holding a painting of the Virgin Mary, a pirate slashed him with a sword as he protested: "You are my witnesses that I am dying for the Catholic Faith." The pirates picked up his body and hurled him overboard with the painting still held tightly in his hands. They then hacked to death the rest of the ="3"9 Jesuits and threw them all into the sea, leaving unharmed the rest of the passengers. (Ban, Cor, Ham, JLx, Tyl)
Jacob Balde, S.J. (German: 1604-1668) was a Latin poet who served as sodality director and court preacher at Munich, Landshut and Amberg. He soon acquired a wide reputation as an outstanding scholar and some contemporaries called him a Second Quintilian . Jacob's numerous poetical works, written mostly in Latin, were marked by a brilliant imagination, nobility of thought, tender affection, wit, knowledge of the human heart, and profound learning. He also wrote music and dramatic poetry, the most important of which is The Daughter of Jephthah which was frequently performed at Jesuit schools. His poems and other writings deal with the common ideas of the world in which he lived: religion, love of friends, love of country, arts and letters, the virtues of patient endurance and fortitude. Over 70 odes honor the Blessed Virgin Mary. His patriotic poems, it is said, make him the German poet for all times . Jacob was a master of classical Latin and like Horace wrote four books of odes and one of epodes. Balde tried his hand at epic verse in such poems as The Battle of the Frogs and Mice in five books and On the Vanity of the World . Among his satirical poems are found 22 poems on The Glory of Medicine and one Against the Abuse of Tobacco . (Ban, Ham, JLx, JLP, Som)
Daniel Bartoli, S.J. (Italian: 1608-1685) was an historian, a physicist and a very effective mathematics teacher. He sought to link the speculative and the experimental approaches to science and did not hesitate to praise the works of Galileo whose works were still on the Index of forbidden books. On the other hand he was not afraid to criticize Galileo's faulty opinions on harmonic motion. Judging from the number of editions and translations of Daniel's works, his books were widely read, supplied many ideas for the scientific debates of the day and helped inculcate an appreciation for scientific evidence. Daniel wrote a scholarly meditative work of philosophical and astronomical interest, with curious notes on a diversity of topics - flowers, the Pisa cathedral, atheists, church domes, hunting, quicklime, snails, demons, dissonance in music, geometrical proofs, Leonardo, Michelangelo, the microscope, navigation, clouds, the eye, the cathedral floor of Sienna, the doors of the Baptistry at Florence, the rulers of Mexico, China and Persia, chess and sleep. His works were published in translation by Thomas of Salsbury, the translator of Galileo's works, who used Daniel as an example of a man pursuing scholarship in spite of poverty and hostile criticism. Thomas was using Daniel as an example to encourage the appreciation of original ideas and discourage the worship of authority. Daniel wrote a frequently quoted life of Ignatius Loyola for which he was still correcting the proofs on the day he died. (Ham, JLx, Som)
John Bathe, S.J. (Irish: ?-1649) worked at the Jesuit college in Drogheda until Cromwell's invasion when he was arrested, taken to the public square, beaten, then shot by Oliver Cromwell's soldiers. In September, 1649 Cromwell with 12,000 soldiers had surrounded the town of Drogheda and demanded that the Irish defenders surrender, promising that they would not be harmed. As soon as they put down their weapons all were killed by the British. Cromwell later justified the massacre of these ="3",000 men on the grounds that this would strike terror into other Irish towns and would hasten future surrenders. He justified his further slaughter of the towns' non-combatants, women and children, in that they deserved to die because of past mob violence. Later another English patriot, Winston Churchill, no great friend of Ireland, had this to say about Cromwell's actions in Drogheda. (Ham, JLx, McR)
There followed a massacre so all-effacing as to startle even the opinion of those fierce times. All were put to the sword. None escaped; every priest and friar was butchered. . . . Cromwell in Ireland, disposing of overwhelming strength and using it with merciless wickedness, debased the standards of human conduct and sensibly darkened the journey of mankind . . . Upon all of us there still lies 'the curse of Cromwell'.
St. Robert Bellarmine, S.J. (Italian: 1542-1621), a Cardinal and Doctor of the Universal Church was one of the most learned men of his time. His books were such a powerful vindication of the Catholic Church that Queen Elizabeth forbade her subjects from selling them under pain of death. A very popular orator, he could memorize an hour-long Latin sermon by reading it over once and had the ability to simplify the great truths of theology and put them within range of ordinary people. Bellarmine confronted the Protestant Reformers and justified the right of the Catholic Church to defend herself and the Faith, to meet moral issues and to help guide and correct the temporal order.
Over Robert's protests the Pope made him a Cardinal "because he was without equal for learning in the Church of God." From this new vantage point he then set about to root out the abuses inside the Catholic Church which gave the Reformers grounds for their criticisms and presented to Pope Clement VIII a denunciation of the major abuses prevalent in the Pope's own Roman Curia. He pointed out that the Pope was not the Church's overlord but its administrator. Only Pope Sixtus V's death prevented Robert's writings from appearing on the list of forbidden books because he opposed the Pope's theory of direct papal power over civil authority. Robert's concern for education was apparent from the letters he wrote urging careful training of mathematics teachers. Galileo invited Robert to see the new-found wonders of the sky in his telescope and later Robert turned to Jesuit scientists to confirm Galileo's findings. This resulted in Robert's gentle treatment of Galileo at his famous trial - which leniency did not please the Holy Office . Robert, however, was not to be intimidated by anyone either outside or inside the Church. (Ban, DSB, Ham, JLx, O'M, Som, Tyl)
St. John Berchmans, S.J. (Belgian: 1599-1621) died before his ordination and immediately after his death many of the Roman laity familiar with his scholastic ministries began to venerate him as a saint. John was noted for his good-natured disposition who "did nothing extraordinary, but did ordinary things extraordinarily well." He decided to become a Jesuit after reading the life of another scholastic, Aloysius Gonzaga, S.J. John's father was a shoemaker and hoped that John would become a diocesan priest so that he would be able to help the family with an income, but John was determined to become a Jesuit. During his seminary days in Belgium the Jesuit General requested the Flemish Provincial to send to the Roman College two Jesuit scholastics, outstanding in intelligence and religious spirit. John was chosen and with his companion set out on the 10-week journey, walking the entire 800 miles from Antwerp to Rome.
Hoping to serve the multilingual migrants overrunning the continent at that time, John resolved to learn all the chief languages of Europe and he demonstrated great linguistic ability. It was his desire to serve on the China mission after ordination. His performance in philosophy and science were so brilliant that he was assigned the arduous task of a "public defense" which meant that he had to prepare the whole field of philosophy and answer any questions posed by the faculty and visitors in a public demonstration. His health broke during these studies precipitating his death at the age of 22, thus ending his dream of preaching the faith in China. (Ban, Cor, Ham, JLx, Som, Tyl)
William Berthier, S.J. (French: 1704-1784) edited the renowned Jesuit periodical the Journal des Trévoux . A leading scholar, William was in a position to emphasize the weaknesses in the "Great Encyclopedia", edited by d'Alembert and Diderot which best articulated the materialistic and anti-ecclesiastical philosophy of life called the Enlightenment Movement. Initially William greeted the new publication and wished it well, then he suggested that the editors of the Encyclopédie indicate their sources and use quotation marks when directly citing other works. William pointed out that the first volume of the Encyclopédie contained over 100 articles which had been taken without acknowledgment from earlier works, and in particular, specified the parts of the Encyclopédie which had been lifted directly from the writings of the Jesuit, Claude Buffier, who had died 15 years earlier. This revelation challenged Diderot's claim that he and his colleagues were pioneers in this research. William, however, remained open to the positive contributions of the authors. Determined to work for an understanding with the intelligentsia, he supported the evident intellectual curiosity and the idea of recording human progress. But as more volumes were published along with an increasing number of serious flaws William, sharply condemned the Encyclopedia . (Ban, Ham, JLx, Som)
Thomas Betagh, S.J. (Irish: 17="3"8 - 1811) was an educator in Dublin and founded a "free school" where ="3"00 Irish boys, poor in everything but ability and spirit, received their education. He acquired desperately needed clothing for many of the students. After the Suppression of the Jesuits Thomas became the Vicar-General of the Archdiocese of Dublin and was known as a very vigorous pastor. The inscription on his marble monument in the Cathedral Church reads: "His chief delight and happiness was to instruct the young, especially the needy and the orphan." Thomas supported Daniel O'Connell's stand in opposing the other Irish bishops who wished to submit to a British scheme uniting Ireland with England, thus bringing them into the United Kingdom in exchange for citizenship for all Catholics. The plan would give the English king veto power over any appointments of any future Irish Catholic bishops. (JLx, Som)
Intoduction to Jesuit Portraits
Contents Names of 202 Jesuits
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 2 Bo to Cam
Jesuit Portraits Chapter ="3" Can to Cos
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 4 Cot to Go
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 5 Gr to K
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 6 L to Me
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 7 Mi to Pe
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 8 Pi to Ri
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 9 Ro to St
Jesuit Portraits Chapter 10 Su to Z